INTRODUCTIONSmall-scale drones that are intrinsically safe for users and easy to transport and deploy are disrupting commercial and recreational applications ranging from inspection to mapping, environmental monitoring, agriculture, and aerial photography (1). Although the availability of submillimeter electronic components is facilitating the development of smaller and lighter autonomous drones (2–6), Miniature and Nano Air Vehicles (MAVs and NAVs) face two major problems: short flight duration and poor control characteristics due to high sensitivity to wind gusts and atmospheric turbulence.The short flight duration stems from poor aerodynamic and propulsive efficiency, both of which decrease with vehicle size (1, 7, 8). As illustrated in Fig. 1A, the flight endurance of existing fixed-wing drones with a weight on the order of 10 to 100 g is typically less than 30 min. Scale effects can be characterized by the Reynolds number, Re, a nondimensional parameter defined as Re =…



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